Despite ongoing efforts, an effective HIV vaccine may not be ready for another decade this according to scientists attending the AIDS Vaccine 2012 conference. In 2009, a trial in Thailand, called RV144 and involving 16,000 volunteers demonstrated, that a vaccine can protect against HIV infection in humans. The vaccine trial represented a milestone for HIV vaccine research. Despite the vaccine's success, researchers are struggling to overcome research and manufacturing challenges, and say that the process of making it ready for roll-out is taking longer than expected. In addition, researchers were not prepared for going to the next phase. The company that produced the component of the vaccine booster was small, and initially lacked capacity for producing the vaccine on a larger scale.